Nature and Society, October-November 2011, pp. 7-9
LIGO – Laser Interferometric Gravitational Wave Observatory
VIRGO – European Gravitational Observatory in Pisa
(LIGO), University of Oregon, near the Stateline Wind Project, and the (VIRGO) in Pisa, near a small wind farm, have done detailed measurements of the generation and transmission of seismic vibrations from large wind turbines. Both of these centers were able to detect seismic vibrations travelling through soil, rock and water.
The seismic vibrations remained strong beyond 10 km (6.2 miles) and were still detectable at 18 km (11.18 miles).
Just some of the less obvious effects:
All fish are very sensitive to low frequency vibrations.
Interference with insects that use vibrations on plant stems for communication and danger warnings.
The sensitivity of earthworms to vibration is well-known.
Of particular concern is that many farmers have reported that bees are no longer seen in the vicinity of wind farms.
How many of the species found in the soil and waterways have been affected by wind farm vibrations? We do not know because the necessary environmental and ecological studies have simply not been done
Acoustic noise reduces fish foraging success. Both sticklebacks and minnows decreased food intake and were startled more often.
Under increased noise conditions, consistent with a classic stress- or fear-related defense cascade, sticklebacks maintained foraging effort but made more mistakes, which may result from an impact of noise on cognition. https://www.sciencedirect.com/
The Behavioral Ecology of Insect Vibrational Communication REGINALD B. COCROFT AND RAFAEL L. RODRÍGUEZ
Wind power and ecology, October-November 2011 Nature and Society