This is a collected list of links to other documentation sources and research.
There are other sites that have collected vast amounts of information, I have included some of those in the Information Sites listed. The remainder I have limited to those sources that are relative to this project, or studies and research sources.
(Sorry I have not taken the time to organize this better yet)
Ontario Wind Resistance, A great resource, and very relative, as many windfarms in Ontario are along the Lake Superior shore.
Lake Superior Action Research Conservation, larc.ca
Collected research by WeCAREsd.org a grassroots organization in South Dakota. This site has many organized links and information.
National Wind Watch, Inc This site is one of the largest collections of all information available. Wind-Watch promotes awareness of and documents the negative impacts of industrial-scale wind turbines on the environment, economy, and quality of life.
WindAction.org – dedicated to informing people about the true dangers of wind turbines. The library/database has number of searchable topics by country, territory, state, province and so on.
STRAIGHT TALK WIND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY FACTS WeCAREsd.org
Safety of Wind Systems (pdf), M. Ragheb
Wind Energy Sector, Occupational Health and Safety Risks and Accident Prevention Strategies
Environmental Studies and Reports
MARCH 2016, GULLEN RANGE WIND FARM, Annual Environmental Management Report
November 2011, U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Forest and Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center(FRESC) , Wind Energy and Wildlife Research at the Forest and
Rangeland Ecosystem Science Center, Fact Sheet 2011–3134
Impacts of Wind Farms on Upland Habitats
The Environmental Cost of Scotland’s Renewable Energy (pdf), The John Muir Trust
April 1, 2014 Impacts of Industrial Wind Development On Wildlife and Ridgeline Habitat, Vermont and New Hampshire Mountains, PeakKeepers
Lake Superior Action Research Conservation, larc.ca Defining Green
This is a wonderful article on what green means, and on the specific threats to the Lake Superior watershed and boreal forests. This is specific to the Bow Lake Wind Project which is located directly across the big lake from the Huron Mountains, making the observations and issues identical to those that would be seen in here.
STRAIGHT TALK Industrial Wind is Not as Green as We Were Told WeCAREsd.org
Grounded – Read The Nature Conservancy Magazine feature that describes how as climate change sends species scrambling, conservation finds its anchor in geology.
Estimating Climate Resilience Read the Conservation Biology paper where we describe the resilience theory, methods and analysis that conservationists can use to conserve biological diversity while allowing species and communities to rearrange in response to a changing climate.
The Wind Industry
STRAIGHT TALK Industrial Wind Developer Tactics WeCAREsd.org
Here is a Wisconsin energy company’s photos of construction of a turbine on a flat farm field just off a public road. Construction of a Turbine on a Flat Farm Field
Economics and other Disadvantages
Disadvantages of Wind Farms to municipalities This is from larc.ca in Canada so much of the tax information does not apply. But the other informations is valuable.
Retiring worn-out wind turbines could cost billions that nobody has
Ohio’s Blue Creek Wind Farm: Predictable Underperformance, Iberdrola project
STRAIGHT TALK Industrial Wind Zones Destroy Property Values WeCAREsd.org
January 2016 Exploring the impact of the proposed Galloo Island energy project conducted for the Town of Henderson submitted by the Nanos Clarkson University Research Collaboration.
– Study looks at property values when Turbines are added to view.
McCann Summarizes Property Value Studies
Summary: Wind Turbine – Property Value Impact Studies
A member of the Multi Municipal Wind Turbine working group says an assessment of property values confirmed a 25% property devaluation due to industrial wind turbines. Blackburn News – Ontario – Janice MacKay – October 13, 2015
June 8, 2010 report – Residential property values are adversely and measurably impacted by close proximity of industrial-scale wind energy turbine projects to residential properties.
Tourism, Viewshed and the landscape.
Lake Superior Action Research Conservation, lsarc.ca
Letter of Concern Regarding Industrial Wind Development in the Algoma District
Critique of the Heritage and Tourism (pdf) Impact Assessment for Bow Lake Wind Farm
* This project is located in a very similar environment with the same Canadian Shield geology.
Some Sample Reports on Turbines and Tourism.
Almost all studies done by independent experts conclude that there will be
Tourism business lost when industrial wind energy is introduced into a tourist
Poll finds 80 per cent want to keep Wild Land Areas free of major development, John Muir Trust.
In June 2017 this poll found that an absolute majority – 52 per cent – ‘strongly agree’ that “Wild Land Areas should continue to be protected from large-scale infrastructure such as industrial-scale wind farms, major electricity transmission and super-quarries”, while a further 28 per cent ‘tend to agree’.
Scenic America Presentation Wind and the Landscape (pdf) by Kevin E. Fry President, Scenic America
Wildlife Impacts report. LOWELLMOUNTAINSNEWS.FILES.WORDPRESS.COM
July 9, 2018, Springer Birds eat 400 to 500 million tons of insects annually – Along with spiders, insectivorous birds play a vital role in consuming insects that would otherwise destroy forests or crops. – “Forest-dwelling birds consume around 75 per cent of the insects eaten in total by birds which make up about 300 million tonnes of insects per year.”
Impacts of Industrial Wind Development On Wildlife and Ridgeline Habitat, PeakKeepers of Vermont’s Mountains. December 2013
March 2018, Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use in a biodiversity hotspot Millon et al., 2018 (full paper) Ecological Engineering Volume 112, March 2018, Pages 51-54
“Wind turbines impact bat activity, leading to high losses of habitat use… (Fleming and Racey, 2009).
January 2018 Environmental changes and disturbance factors caused by wind turbines may act as potential stressors for natural populations of both flying and ground dwelling animal species. Ecological Indicators Volume 84, Lopucki et al., 2018
“Living in habitats affected by wind turbines may result in an increase in corticosterone levels in ground dwelling animals… The physiological stress response results in release of glucocorticoid hormones. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolind.2017.08.052
Ferrão da Costa et al., 2018 “According to a review by Lovich and Ennen (2013), the construction and operation of wind farms have both potential and known impacts on terrestrial vertebrates. Results have shown that the main impact of wind farms on wolves is the induced reduction on breeding site fidelity and reproductive rates.
Watson et al., 2018 “The global potential for wind power generation is vast, and the number of installations is increasing rapidly. We review case studies from around the world of the effects on raptors of wind-energy development. Collision mortality, displacement, and habitat loss have the potential to cause population-level effects, especially for species that are rare or endangered.”
Aschwanden et al., 2018 “The extrapolated number of collisions was 20.7 birds/wind turbine (CI-95%: 14.3–29.6) for 8.5 months. Nocturnally migrating passerines, especially kinglets (Regulus sp.), represented 55% of the fatalities. 2.1% of the birds theoretically exposed to a collision (measured by radar at the height of the wind turbines) were effectively colliding.”
Naylor, 2018 “While wind energy provides a viable solution for emission reductions, it comes at an environmental cost, particularly for birds. As wind energy grows in popularity, its environmental impacts are becoming more apparent. Recent studies indicate that wind power has negative effects on proximate wildlife. These impacts can be direct—collision fatalities—and indirect—habitat loss (Fargione et al. 2012; Glen et al. 2013).
Lange et al., 2018 “Results from our surface water extractions and aerial surveys suggest that the wind farm has negatively affected redheads through altered hydrology and disturbance displacement. … it is likely that this wind farm has affected other species that use these wetlands or migrate along the lower Texas coast (Contreras et al. 2017).
Studies in Europe investigating the effects on waterfowl by wind turbines have reported similar results, showing that turbines have likely compromised foraging opportunities for waterfowl through disturbance displacement (Larsen and Madsen 2000).”
Chiebáo, 2018 “I studied the large-scale movements of white-tailed eagles during the dispersal period, assessing their space use in relation to the distribution of existing and proposed wind farms across Finland.”
I found that a breeding pair holding a territory closer to an installation has a lower probability to breed successfully when compared to a pair from a territory lying farther away.
Frick et al., 2017 “Large numbers of migratory bats are killed every year at wind energy facilities. We show that mortality from wind turbines may drastically reduce population size and increase the risk of extinction. For example, the hoary bat population could decline by as much as 90% in the next 50 years. Our results suggest that wind energy development may pose a substantial threat to migratory bats in North America.
Hammerson et al, 2017 “Conservationists are increasingly concerned about North American bats due to the arrival and spread of the White-nose Syndrome (WNS) disease and mortality associated with wind turbine strikes. As of 2015, 18–31% of the species were at risk (categorized as having vulnerable, imperiled, or critically imperiled NatureServe conservation statuses) and therefore among the most imperiled terrestrial vertebrates on the continent.”
Vasilakis et al., 2017 “Numerous wind farms are planned in a region hosting the only cinereous vulture population in south-eastern Europe. Cumulative collision mortality was expected to be eight to ten times greater in the future (proposed and operating wind farms) than currently (operating wind farms), equivalent to 44% of the current population (103 individuals) if all proposals are authorized (2744 MW). Even under the most optimistic scenario whereby authorized proposals will not collectively exceed the national target for wind harnessing in the study area (960 MW), cumulative collision mortality would still be high (17% of current population) and likely lead to population extinction.”
2008, Joris Everaert , English Abstract: Effects of wind turbines on fauna in Flanders Instituut voor Natuur- en Bosonderzoek (Nature and Forest Institute), Brussels, Belgium. Download original document: “Effecten van windturbines op de fauna in Vlaanderen”
The Indirect Impacts of Wind Farms on Terrestrial Mammals: Insights from the Disturbance and Exclusion Effects on Wolves (Canis lupus) Gonçalo Ferrão da Costa, João Paula, Francisco Petrucci-Fonseca and Francisco Álvares
Lauren C. Naylor, GONE WITH THE WIND, Columbia University. Results of this study Suggest injuries sustained from collisions with wind turbines are unlikely to have a high rehabilitation success rate. Raptors either die on impact or suffer irreparable traumatic injury that results in euthanasia. This low success rate suggests that the use of Rehabilitation as a form of post-development mitigation would be ineffective.
Fire, Structure And Blade Failures
May 13, 2017 Wind-power pollution: turbine oil seeps into the land in Mexico
Pictures filed under Structural Failure. Photos of turbine and blade failures…
Iberdrola project blade fail. The Nurlu wind energy facility suffered a catastrophic blade failure. http://www.windaction.org
The flaming turbine is part of Iberdrola Renewables’ Streator Cayuga Ridge South Wind Power Project located in Livingston County, IL. http://www.windaction.org
February 25, 2017 Scottish Wind Power Company Attempts to Cover Up Turbine Collapse
September 26, 2016 Defects found in a number of turbine foundations at the 74MW Hardscrabble project in New York State.
Health, Noise, Flicker, Vibrations
As Wind Farms have moved into communities, and ecologically important or fragile areas, there has been an emerging track record of negative impacts to local peoples and wildlife in and surrounding those projects.
05 June 2018, Barry et al., 2018 The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 143, 3278 (2018); https://doi.org/10.1121/1.5039840 “The findings indicate that residential proximity to wind turbines is correlated with annoyance and health-related quality of life measures.
February 15, 2018 Pathway to disease: Australian court links wind turbine noise with possible diseases. https://www.wind-watch.org/news/
April 27, 2017 Annette Smith: The winds of woe… neighbors learned the truth. Yes, you can hear them. http://www.vermontbiz.com/news
April 12, 2017 RESEARCH ARTICLE
Altered cortical and subcortical connectivity due to infrasound administered near the hearing threshold – Evidence from fMRI (PDF) http://en.friends-against-wind.org
March 2017 International Standards Organization acknowledges motion sickness from low-frequency oscillatory motion below 1 Hz http://en.friends-against-wind
March 30, 2017 ISO acknowledges motion sickness from low-frequency oscillatory
motion below 1 Hz http://en.friends-against-wind.org
VT PSB Noise Rule Presentation Final 2 Dec2016 to VCE by Stephen E. Ambrose, INCE, Bd Cert. – Specializing in Acoustics study summary document PDF
Wind-Turbine Noise: American Academy of Audiology – What Audiologists Should Know – low-frequency noise and vibration emitted by wind turbines may have adverse health effects on humans . http://www.howsyourhearing.org
March 21, 2017 Wind towers in Bellmont also meet town noise-level restrictions. Wind towers in the town that have been the subject of noise complaints from residents.
March 14, 2017 CHATEAUGAY –– The turbine towers erected for the Jericho Rise wind farm project comply with town restrictions on the amount of noise they can generate –– but that doesn’t mean they aren’t noisy, town officials said Monday. http://www.mymalonetelegram.com
Mar 12, 2017 Psychologist claims wind industry dangerous to human health, pens epic takedown of ‘green’ energy. Writing for Watts Up With That, “the world’s most viewed site on global warming and climate change,” Helen Schwiesow Parker, Ph.D., laid out a detailed case suggesting the wind industry has caused “adverse human health effects,”… Parker is a licensed clinical psychologist and a former faculty member at University of Virginia Medical School. http://www.theblaze.com/news/
Gortsas et al., 2017 “Infrasound, low frequency noise and soil vibrations produced by large wind turbines might disturb the comfort of nearby structures and residents. Due to wind loading, the foundation of a wind turbine interacts with the soil and creates micro-seismic surface waves that propagate for long distances and they are able to influence adversely sensitive measurements conducted by laboratories located far from the excitation point.”
Krekel and Zerrahn, 2017 “We show that the construction of wind turbines close to households exerts significant negative external effects on residential well-being … In fact, beyond unpleasant noise emissions (Bakker et al., 2012; McCunney et al., 2014) and impacts on wildlife (Pearce-Higgins et al., 2012; Schuster et al., 2015), most importantly, wind turbines have been found to have negative impacts on landscape aesthetics (Devine-Wright, 2005; Jobert et al., 2007; Wolsink, 2007). … We show that the construction of a wind turbine within a radius of 4,000 metres has a significant negative and sizeable effect on life satisfaction. For larger radii, no negative externalities can be detected.”
The Behavioral Ecology of Insect Vibrational Communication REGINALD B. COCROFT AND RAFAEL L. RODRÍGUEZ
May 22, 2017, Analysis of the Influence of Wind Turbine Noise on Seismic Recordings at Two Wind Parks in Germany Hortencia Flores Estrella, Michael Korn, Kilian Albert, Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 2017, 5, 76-91
Schofield, R. (2002) Seismic Measurements at the Stateline Wind Project—A Prediction
of the Seismic Signal that the Proposed Maiden Wind Project Would Produce
at LIGO. University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon, USA. LIGO-T020104-00-Z
Styles, P., Stimpson, I., Toon, S., England, R. and Wright, M. (2005) Microseismic
and Infrasound Monitoring of Low Freqency Noise und Vibrations from Windfarms.
Recommendations on the Siting of Windfarms in the Vicinity of Eskdalemuir,
Scotland. Report, Keele University, Keele.
Wind power and ecology, October-November 2011 Nature and Society
Science deniers in the wind industry https://wattsupwiththat.com
How Does Wind Turbine Noise Affect People? Acoustics research Department of Otolaryngology Washington University School of Medicine Acoustics Today (pdf)
February 28 ,2017 Chateaugay, Bellmont officials receive complaints about noise generated by Jericho Rise Wind Farm http://www.mymalonetelegram.com
On the bus to Hardscrabble Wind Farm – class action lawsuit against Iberdrola that claims the effects of the turbines constitute a nuisance https://www.wind-watch.org/news
Court document Hardscrabble Wind Farm – class action lawsuit against Iberdrola (pdf) https://madisonmattersdotorg.files.wordpress.com
An earful over turbine noise http://www.simcoereformer.ca
Wind farm opponent warns St. Lawrence County legislators of potential problems
Massachusetts photographer travels to St. Lawrence County to warn officials and locals concerning controversial wind tower project http://northcountrynow.com
Wind farm being sued by families admits its liability https://www.wind-watch.org
Perception-based protection from low-frequency sounds may not be enough. Research from Department of Otolaryngology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO http://oto2.wustl.edu
May 3, 2018 Wind Turbine Radar Interference Mitigation
Wind Energy, Renewable Energy, CO2,
08 January 2018 Schäfer et al., 2018 >volume 3,pages 119–126 “Multiple types of fluctuations impact the collective dynamics of power grids and thus challenge their robust operation.”
01/11/2018 More Renewables Mean Less Stable Grids, Integrating growing numbers of renewable power installations and microgrids onto the grid can result in larger-than-expected fluctuations in grid frequency.”
Marques et al., 2018 Energy Policy Volume 116, May 2018, Pages 257-265 “The installed capacity of wind power preserves fossil fuel dependency. … Electricity consumption intensity and its peaks have been satisfied by burning fossil fuels. …
3 May 2018 Renewables Fail To Deliver: When Demand Is High, Generation Capacity Is Low. Cradden and McDermott, 2018 “Prolonged cold spells were experienced in Ireland in the winters of 2009–10 and 2010–11, and electricity demand was relatively high at these times, whilst wind generation capacity factors were low. Such situations can cause difficulties for an electricity system with a high dependence on wind energy.
Save Ontario Shores leaders tell town officials across NY to be wary of state control over local decisions https://orleanshub.com
Reasons NOT to Sign a Wind Contract https://www.wind-watch.org
Finally, people are waking up to problems with wind power https://swantonwindvt.org
May 10, 2017 Mark Whitworth: The Continuing Saga of Turbine Noise – opinion http://www.caledonianrecord.com/opinion